Home • Volvox reticuliferus NIES-3785
Volvox reticuliferus NIES-3785 asexual spheroids.
Volvox reticuliferus NIES-3785 asexual spheroids. Image credit: Hisayoshi Nozaki.
Volvox reticuliferus NIES-3785 female spheroid with eggs
Volvox reticuliferus NIES-3785 female spheroid with eggs. Image credit: Hisayoshi Nozaki.

The Volvox reticuliferus NIES-3785 genome sequence and gene models were not determined by the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), but were downloaded from NCBI on March 6, 2023. All published models are available as ExternalModels. In order to ensure this genome is comparable to those sequenced annotated by the JGI , we applied standard filters to ExternalModels to produce the initial GeneCatalog. A total of 8,982 out of 22,160 external models were excluded based on one of the following classifications: 1) association with repetitive elements, 2) pseudogenes with internal stop codons, 3) alternative isoforms or overlapping transcript models, 4) alleles on secondary/smaller scaffolds, and 5) short models lacking functional annotation. Please note that this copy of the genome is not maintained by NCBI and is therefore not automatically updated. In order to allow comparative analyses with other algal genomes sequenced by the JGI, a copy of this genome is incorporated into PhycoCosm. The JGI Annotation Pipeline was used to add functional annotation to the genes.

Volvox reticuliferus NIES-3785

Volvox reticuliferus is a freshwater chlorophyte alga producing asexual and sexual multicellular spheroids. Asexual spheroids are haploid and reproduce by formation of daughter spheroids. Sexual reproduction of V. reticuliferus is heterothallic with male and female genotypes that produce male and female gametes (sperm and eggs, respectively) in sexual male and female spheroids, respectively (heterothallism). V. reticuliferus strain NIES-3785 is female whereas NIES-3786 is male. V. reticuliferus was previously identified as a heterothallic subgroup within "V. africanus" (Nozaki et al. 2015). A comparative genomic study between heterothallic V. reticuliferus and homothallic V. africanus provided exciting insights into the evolution of sex chromosomes in haploid organisms (Yamamoto et al. 2021). Further comparative studies of these two species promises deeper insights into evolution and diversity of sex chromosomes in eukaryotes.

Genome Reference(s)


  • Nozaki H, Matsuzaki R, Yamamoto K, Kawachi M, Takahashi F. Delineating a New Heterothallic Species of Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae) Using New Strains of "Volvox africanus". PLoS One. 2015 Nov 12;10(11):e0142632. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142632.